Food technology is a technique of safe food products that can maintain handling, preservation, processing, packaging, distribution and marketing. It is included as many specializations are food processing and engineering, food analysis and chemistry, food microbiology, food toxicology, biotechnology, food and nutrition, food quality management, food safety, hygiene and sanitation. It is applied to many fields such as dairy, meat, fish, cereal-based products.
What is Food Technology?
Food technology is the study of food analysis and technique in the selection, preservation, processing, packaging and distribution to affect the consumption of safe food. It includes many fields such as food chemistry, microbiology, food toxicology, biotechnology, engineering, nutrition science, quality control, post harvest technology and food safety & risk management.
Scope of Food Technology
- Food Technology can develop knowledge that informs human activity in food handling, processing, distribution and marketing.
- Food Technology applies to food handling and processing that study interrelationships between properties of materials and changing methods of handling and manufacturing them.
Components of Food Technology
- Food analysis and chemistry
- Food Quality Factors and their Measurement
- Nutritive food constituents that effect of processing and handling
- Food microbiology, mycology and toxicology
- Food processing and engineering
Objectives of Food Technology
- To grow, future technologists create a new formula of food use in the health sector.
- To produce and develop technologists and experts in the field of nutrition, food science and technology.
- To produce expert food technologists with emphasis on Research and Development of new foods used locally and internationally.
- To prepare new food technologists uses the knowledge and skills necessary for entrepreneurship and food industry management.
Food is the solid and liquid materials taken into the digestive tracts and body utilize substances. Food is a natural or processing substance which is eaten or drunk by living things.
Food is the main source of energy and nutrition for animal or plant origin. It produces energy and maintains the growth of the body to protect from disease. Food technology plays an important role in food safety that produces good food.
Nutrition is the components of food that work in the body or it is the process of breaking down food to use for energy in the body. Nutrition is good health that can nourish the body, mind and soul.
Nutrition is the food component that requires the body to grow, reproduce and lead to healthy living life. Nutrition is needed for various functions in the body. Nutrients include carbohydrate, proteins, fat, water, vitamin and minerals. Food technology is largely used to enrich nutrition.
Components of Food
Food is a natural or processing substance which is eaten or drunk by living things. Food is the main source of energy and nutrition for animal or plant origin. It is four basic food energy sources. There are carbohydrates, protein, fat and alcohol. Food technology maintains food components for safe food produce.They are providing the energy for the maintenance of the body. The most important food components are classified as:
Major Food Components
Major components of food are carbohydrate, protein, fat and water. There are given bellows:
Carbohydrates are organic compounds which contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) and they are structures of Cn(H2n O). Carbohydrates include simple sugars, starches and celluloses. Carbohydrates are natural sources such as rice, wheat, potato, banana etc.
Proteins are amino acids which contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) and they are molecules in cells. Proteins are body building foods. Proteins can help to carry out a specific function in a living cell. Proteins consist with muscle and the connective tissue and they are important as carriers in the blood system. Proteins are the most important source such as meat, egg, fish, milk etc.
Fat is a main component of the diet. It is important due to its flavor, palatability, texture and aroma. Fat is fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Sources of fats may be animals or vegetables which produce in industrial processing.
Water is abundant in all living things and according to almost all foods. It is essential for life because it contributes no calories to the diet. Water mostly affects the texture of foods.
Minor Food Components
Minor components of food are vitamins and minerals as follows:
Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins and minerals are essential parts of food due to they are required for normal health. Vitamins simplify the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
Vitamins help our body to fight against diseases. Vitamins are divided into two major groups are fat soluble vitamins (vitamin A, D, E and K) and water soluble vitamins (vitamin B complex and C). Minerals are needed in small amounts which maintain different functions. Minerals also help to form body structure. Vitamins and minerals are the main source such as vegetables, fruits, meat, fish, milk, egg, cereals etc.
Sources of different Vitamins
- Vitamin A- Carrot, mango, papaya, pumpkin,
- Vitamin B- Rice, wheat, potato,
- Vitamin C- Citrus fruits, tomato, guava, lemon, orange, pepper, broccoli
- Vitamin D- Liver, fish oil, milk, butter, sunlight, egg, butter
- Vitamin E- Coconut oil, olive oil, nuts
- Vitamin K- Leafy fruits and vegetables
Advance Food Technology
Food technology is improving the growth, storage and distribution of food resources. The future food technologies like bioprocess, robotics, gene coding and artificial intelligence have been redesigned which produce food rapidly and management is taken at low cost. It is the greatest revolution in the food sector which benefits people and manages to save food.
Product development is new product formulation which involves a product from concept or idea through market release and beyond. Product development is conceptualizing and designing the product for identifies a market need. Product development needs a few steps such as new product strategy, idea generation, concept development, screening, testing, business analysis and commercialization.
Food supplement is the food enrichment that is used to normal diet and main source of a vitamin or mineral or other substance with a nutritional or physiological effect in combination and formation. It is popular worldwide for supporting health issues.
Food fortification is added to extra nutrients such as iodine that enrichment food values can be used for disease prevention. For example, Salt is added to iodine so that fortification of iodine can reduce goiter or child death.
Emerging Trends in Food Technology
- Dietary guidelines and nutrition education focus on refined foods with whole grains, legumes and other foods.
- Food safety issues are very strong issues that concern people. Food technologists are responding to these nutritional and safety concerns for all classes of people.
- Food interactions and bioavailability of nutrients are increased food values.
- Analytical and detection methods are improvement in research and education in food safety.
- New product development can reduce fat and calorie count of products.
- Biotechnology is used in food evaluations.
Food Safety & Risk Management
Food technology is very important for safety of food and hazards. Food safety is important to produce or manufacture high quality products to ensure safety. Risk management is the process to accept & reduce assessed risks and to implement appropriate standards. Implementation of the risk management decision will usually involve regulatory food safety measures which may include the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point). It is accept few rules & regulations are given bellows:
- Risk management to place
- Controlling the risks in the workplace
- Identify the hazards
- Decide to harmed and how
- Evaluate the risks and decide on precautions
- Record keeping to significant findings.
- Review to risk assessment and update if necessary.
Finally, Food technology is vastly applied for good quality of food produce and maintenance to food safety. It is very important to people that they can be given good health, mind and soul. Food technologists are changing food habits and protecting us from unhygienic and toxic food. World is rapidly changing to food habits and produce to save food awareness to people.